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Roman Gods and Mythology

Tales beyond belief

Ancient Roman Gods and Mythology
This article provides interesting facts and information about Roman Gods and Mythology. The Romans habitually adopted different culture, mythology and religions from other cultures and civilisations. This included the assimilation of the gods, goddesses and mythology of foreign nations, especially those from ancient Greece.

The Romans identified their own gods, goddesses and mythology with those of the Greeks, adapting the myths, legends and stories told about them and importing them into their own religion and culture. The Roman gods and goddesses not adopted from foreign religions were called 'di indigetes'.

Ancient Roman Gods and Mythology
The stories about Roman Gods and Mythology are therefore similar to many found in ancient Greek mythology but more emphasis is placed on the political development of the Roman government and the Roman state religion with particular focus on the moral expectations of the Romans. Roman Gods and Mythology contains their creation myth and the story of the birth of Romulus and Remus and the founding of the city of Rome.

Roman Gods and Mythology
Who were the creatures and gods who featured in the stories of Roman Gods and Mythology? The following list provides a description and definition of Roman Gods and mythology.

  • Achilles was a demigod and the son of Thetis, a minor sea-goddess and Peleus, the king of Myrmidons

  • Abundantia, the Roman goddess of abundance and prosperity

  • Aesculapius, the god of healing and medicine

  • Aeneas was a demigod and the son of the goddess Venus and Prince Anchises

  • Amphion was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and Antiope

  • Apollo, god of poetry, music, and oracles

  • Aurora, goddess of the dawn

  • Bacchus, god of wine

  • Bellona war goddess

  • Ceres, goddess of the harvest and mother of Proserpina

  • Charon, the ferryman

  • Cupid, god of love and the son of Venus

  • Cybele, goddess of fertility in Roman Gods and Mythology

  • Dardanus was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and Electra who was the daughter of Atlas

  • Discordia was the Goddess of Strife and Discord

  • Diana, goddess of the hunt, the moon, virginity

  • Fauna, goddess of nature and animals

  • Faunus, god of flocks

  • Flora, goddess of flowers

  • Fortuna, goddess of fortune

  • Helen of Troy was a demigod and a daughter of Jupiter and Leda who was queen of Sparta

  • Hekate, goddess of Magic and the moon in Roman Mythology

  • Harmonia was a demigod and a daughter of Jupiter and Electra

  • Hercules (Heracles in Greek) was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and the mortal Alcmene

  • Iasus was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and Electra (one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione). He was the brother of Dardanus

  • Janus, double-faced or two-headed god of beginnings and endings and of doors in Roman Mythology

  • Juventas, goddess of Youth

  • Juno, Queen of the Gods and goddess of matrimony, and one of the Dii Consentes

  • Jupiter, King of the Gods and the storm, air, and sky god

  • Luna, goddess of the moon

  • Lares, household gods

  • Latona goddess of motherhood and modesty

  • Mater Matuta was an indigenous Roman goddess in Roman Mythology, whom the Romans eventually made equivalent to the dawn goddess Aurora

  • Mars the God of War

  • Mercury, messenger of the gods and bearer of souls to the underworld

  • Minerva, goddess of wisdom, war, the arts in Roman Mythology

  • Mithras, god of soldiers, light, truth, and honor

  • Neptune, god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses

  • Orion was a demigod and a son of the sea god Neptune and Euryale in Mythology

  • Orpheus was a demigod and a son of Calliope and the god Apollo in Roman Mythology

  • Perseus was a demigod in Mythology and a son of Jupiter and Danae

  • Proserpina, Queen of the Dead and a grain-goddess

  • Penates or Di Penates, household gods

  • Pluto, god of the Underworld

  • Pollux was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and the mortal Leda. He was the twin brother of Castor

  • In Roman Gods and Mythology and religion, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state
    Roma, personification of the Roman state

  • Romulus and Remus were the twin brothers and central characters of Rome's foundation myth.

  • Rhea Silvia was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the city of Rome.

  • Saturnus, the god of time, harvest and agriculture in Roman Gods and Mythology

  • Servius Tullius was the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were freely mythologized and said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna

  • The Sibylline Books (Libri Sibyllini) were a collection of a collection of prophecies from an Oracle named the Sibyl of Cumae, bearing upon Roman religion and the welfare of Romans and the Roman state

  • Theseus was a demigod and a son of Neptune and Aethra

  • Trivia, goddess of crossroads

  • Tityos was a demigod and a son of Jupiter and Elara

  • Venus, goddess of love, beauty, sexuality, and gardens

  • Vesta, goddess of the hearth, the Roman state, and the sacred fire

  • Victoria, goddess of victory

  • Vulcan, god of the forge, fire, and blacksmiths

  • Zethes was a demigod and a son of Boreas (the Greek god of the cold north wind and the bringer of winter) and Oreithyia, daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens. His brother was Calais in Roman Mythology

The Roman Gods and Mythology
Much of the mythology and legends of the divinities and deities of Ancient Rome were taken from the Greeks. Material was taken from Greek heroic legend by Virgil, Livy and Hyginus. Virgil was a poet who wrote the Aeneid, a Latin epic poem which tells the adventures of Aeneas after the Trojan War and contributed to the founding myths of Roman mythology. Livy and Gaius Julius Hyginus were respected historians who documented Roman versions of the famous myths. The people of  Ancient Rome enjoyed the legends and mythology that told of the great victories won by heroes over great odds. In Roman mythology the gods and goddesses mixed with humans and children from such liaisons were called 'demigods' who were invariably renown for their courage and great strength.

  • Hercules was a demigod and the son of Jupiter (the Greek god Zeus). The myths and legends of the Twelve Labors of Hercules featured strongly in Roman mythology

  • The legends and myths about terrifying creatures and monsters were also favored in the Mythology of Ancient Rome including the mythology relating to:

    • Cyclopes, the one-eyed giant

    • Cerberus, the dog with three heads that guarded the entrance to Hades

    • Minotaur, the half man half bull mythical monster that lived in the Labyrinth at Knossos

    • The Sirens, whose singing lured sailors on to rocks

    • The Centaurs, the mythical creatures with the head, arms, and torso of a man and the body and legs of a horse

    • Gorgons, dreadful female monsters with sharp fangs and hair of living, venomous snakes

    • Medusa, the gorgon that was slayed by Perseus

    • Chimera, fire-breathing female monster with the head of a lion, the body of a goat and the tail of a serpent

    • Echidna, half woman and half snake, known as the "Mother of All Monsters" because most of the supernatural creatures and monsters in mythology were mothered by her

    • Pegasus the flying horse

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